Demonstration and argumentation

What does to demonstrate something in the human sciences means? What kind of knowledge contribution does a philosophical demonstration give rather than a semiotic analysis, a historical reconstruction or an experiment in psychology? What kind of cognitive processes are involved in showing and demonstrating something? What proxies to social norms (formal and not) and idiolectal, to institutions and previous knowledge are at work when trying to demonstrate something in the Humanities? What epistemological stereotypes are at work in scientific research, both in the human sciences and in the sciences in general? How are these stereotypes inscribed in artifacts used for demonstrative and argumentative purposes? What forms of thought have historically determined the modern meanings of demonstrating and arguing?