The theme of conflict, understood as the recognition of at least two opposing and / or contrasting instances, can be faced in many ways, for example as: 

  • a model of knowledge or a model of representation (think at opposition as a model of meaning in structural linguistics or in semiotic semantics);
  • something to be solved, managed or overcome in the social, political, legal, bioethical, cognitive or interpersonal sphere;
  • something to be pursued and built, for example in public communication and in politics;
  • a model for understanding cultural and intrapersonal relationships, connected for example to interest, ethnicity, memory or relations between people;
  • an element characterizing the historical dynamics in the different social, political, legal, bioethical, philosophical and cognitive dimensions;
  • a model of disagreement, i.e. within a relationship between two agents who perform speech (e.g. assertions) or mental acts (e.g. judgments) placing them in a relationship of disagreement, with particular attention to the nature and the normative profile of the disagreement, the necessary and sufficient conditions to determine whether the disagreement occurs, the stability or variability of the model depending on the object of the disagreement